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(1) 125f, pay. (2) 250 t. pay.

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ART. 31245.

SUCCESSION BÉNÉFICIAIRE ET SOCIÉTÉ CONJUGALE COMPTE ET LIQUIDATION

DIVISION

Ser § 2.

A.

B.

INTRODUCTION (no 1).

EFFETS DE LA LIQUIDATION SUR LES DROITS RESPECTIFS DES PARTIES QUI Y SONT ENGAGÉES ET SUR LES RAPPORTS DE CES PARTIES AVEC LES TIERS (n° 3).

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Relations réciproques des parties intéressées à la liquidation (no 3). Rapports des parties en cause avec les liers; succession bénéficiaire (n° 8).

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1. Objet de la présente étude. Les deux arrêts ci-après rapportés (1) s'appliquent à des cas bien distincts: acceptation bénéficiaire, d'une part, et, d'autre part, société conjugale. Les difficultés tranchées paraissent également sans lien entre elles : d'un côté, rapports de l'héritier avec les créanciers de la succession; d'un autre, rapports respectifs des deux époux. Les solutions adoptées ne découlent pas moins d'un principe commun qui peut s'énoncer ainsi lorsque les parties sont respectivement

(1) Cass. ch. civ., 27 octobre 1914, V. infra, art. 31216 et Cour de Toulouse, 9 juin 1915, V. infra, art. 31253.

Tome CXLVII.

4

créancières et débitrices l'une de l'autre et qu'il survient un événement donnant lieu d'établir et d'apurer toute leur situation réciproque, de la liquider, suivant l'expression courante, les opérations qui les lient forment un tout indivisible et constituent les éléments d'un compte unique dont le résultat final est seul à considérer.

2. - Cas où ce résultat peut se produire. Il est presque inutile d'indiquer à cet égard le compte courant. C'est bien le type du cas où, en vertu même de l'intention des parties, les articles du crédit et du débit ne constituent ni dette, ni créance et où l'on ne doit considérer que le tout, l'ensemble du compte (1). Mais l'ouverture d'une succession, souvent, et presque toujours la dissolution d'une société conjugale, sont susceptibles de produire le même résultat, chaque fois qu'il y a lieu de liquider, d'établir un compte entre plusieurs personnes.

§ 2.

EFFETS DE LA LIQUIDATION SUR LES DROITS RESPECTIFS DES PARTIES ET SUR LES RAPPORTS DE CES PARTIES AVEC LES TIERS.

A. Relations réciproques des parties intéressées à la liquidation.

3. Premier résultat, actions respectives des personnes engagées dans la liquidation. Ce que nous allons dire ne s'entend évidemment que des créances et des dettes comprises dans la liquidation; il va de soi qu'à raison de toutes autres, les parties conservent tous leurs droits, auxquels la liquidation. n'apporte aucun changement.

Supposons par exemple qu'un héritier, bien antérieurement à la mort de l'auteur commun, ait emprunté une certaine somme de l'un de ses cohéritiers. L'ouverture de la succession à laquelle ils sont appelés tous les deux ne saurait empêcher le créancier, si l'obligation est échue, d'en exiger le paiement, jusqu'à la clôture de la liquidation.

Au contraire, s'il s'agit de créances et de dettes à comprendre. dans la liquidation, l'action en reddition du compte procède d'une cause unique et elle embrasse dans son ensemble indivisible tous les éléments dont elle se compose, lesquels doivent se solder par une balance définitive (2).

(1) Dalloz, Suppl. au Repert., v° Comple courant, no 40 et 41. (2) Demolombe, Contrats, 1re édit., t. 5, no 519.

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