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DES MATIÈRES

DU VOLUME DE 1913.

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N. B. Le premier chiffre indique la première, la deuxième, la troisième ou la quatrième partie du volume.
Les chiffres suivants indiquent les pages.

Les Lois, Décrets, etc., sont rapportés dans une cinquième partie (Lois annotées), qui sera terminée par une table spéciale.

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1. (Abordage fluvial. Patron de barque.

Action en justice. Intérêt pour agir).

Le patron d'une barque, qui a été coulée

sur une rade fluviale par un autre navire, est
à bon droit déclaré recevable à agir en dom-
mages-intérêts contre l'armateur et le capitaine
du navire qui a causé l'abordage, alors que,
propriétaire d'effets et espèces qui se trou-
vaient à bord, le patron de la barque avait un
intérêt personnel à en réclamer la valeur, ainsi
que des dommages-intérêts. Cass., 24 jan-
vier 1910.
1.239
Comp. Rép.. v° Abordage, n. 83; Pand.
Rép., eod. verb., n. 83 et s.

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2. (Abordage fluvial. Responsabilité.

Navire au mouillage. Navire en manœu-
Faute. Préjudice. Relation de
cause à effel). Le capitaine d'un vapeur est
à bon droit déclaré responsable de l'abordage
qui, d'après les constatations des juges du fond,
est survenu la nuit, par clair de lune, dans
une rade fluviale, entre son navire et une bar-
que au mouillage, qui avait ses feux régle-
mentaires, un navire au mouillage n'ayant en
principe aucune manœuvre à faire. Cass.,
24 janvier 1910.

1.239

3. ... Alors d'ailleurs qu'il est constaté par les

juges du fond qu'en évoluant pour prendre son
mouillage, le vapeur n'obéissait plus à l'effet
combine de sa barre et de sa machine, en telle
sorte que le capitaine n'avait plus la direction
de son navire. Ibid.

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4. Ces constatations établissent à la fois la

faute et la relation de la faute avec le préju-
dice subi. Ibid.

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ABUS DE CONFIANCE.

mer, entre deux navires de nationalité diffé-
rente, la loi applicable est la loi du pavillon
du navire fautif ou présumé tel.
l'Empire (Allemagne), 6 juillet 1910.

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Trib. de
4.14

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Comp. Rép., ° Acte authentique, n. 283 et

s.; Pand. Rep., eod. verb., n. 49 et s.

V. Simulation.

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ACTE D'AVOUÉ A AVOUÉ. V. Demande

incidente. Exécution (des actes ou juge-

ments).

20

ACTE SOUS SEING PRIVE.

Commercant. - Faillile. - Pouvoir du juge). Les juges du fond, qui constatent que l'industrie d'un individu consiste dans l'élevage et la vente de poulets, sans que cette industrie constitue l'exploitation d'un fonds agricole, et qu'il achète tout ce qui lui est nécessaire pour l'élevage et la nourriture des animaux qu'il vend, en se livrant ainsi à un véritable trafic, déduisent à bon droit de ces constatations souveraines que cet individu est commerçant, et peut être déclaré en faillite. Cass., 12 juin

1907.

1.234

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2. (Opérations de bourse. Nombre et importance. Marchés à terme. - Reports. Mandat. Preuve. Matière commerciale. · Présomptions). Si les opérations de bourse ne sont pas nécessairement par ellesmêmes des actes de commerce, elles peuvent revêtir ce caractère, à raison des circonstances et du but dans lesquels elles ont eu lieu. Cass., 30 juillet 1912.

1.24

3. Notamment à raison de la multiplicité et de l'importance des opérations d'achats et ventes à terme, avec reports effectués tant en France qu'à l'étranger, qui donnent à ces opérations un caractère de spéculation. Ibid. 4. Par suite, il appartient aux juges du fond de faire résulter, des présomptions et circonstances de la cause, la preuve du mandat donné au banquier par un particulier de faire ces opérations. Ibid.

5. Spécialement, les juges du fond peuvent, en l'absence d'ordres écrits émanés du 'donneur d'ordre, d'avis d'opérer ou de compte liquidatif dressés et envoyés par le banquier, faire résulter cette preuve de l'inscription, sur les carnets ou livrets tenus par le client lui-même, des opérations faites pour son compte, de ses visites journalières à la maison de banque, qui rendaient inutiles, par la parfaite connaissance des négociations, à mesure qu'elles s'effectuaient, la confirmation par écrit de l'exécution des ordres, enfin, de l'existence d'un compte courant avec la banque, et de la remise d'effets à échéance, afin de couvrir le débit des négociations de bourse portées à ce compte. Ibid.

Comp. Rép., vis Commercant, n. 72 et s., Jeu et pari, n. 349 et s.; Pand. Rép., v° Bourse (Opérations de), n. 592 et s.

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6. (Propriétaire. Produits du sol. Cannes à sucre. Transformation. - Achat de produits. Accessoire). La transformation par un propriétaire de ses cannes à sucre sucre n'est pas un acte de commerce, le rendant justiciable de la juridiction commerciale, lorsqu'elle ne constitue qu'un accessoire de son exploitation agricole, et présente un caractère de nécessité, en vue de permettre de tirer parti des produits de la terre en leur donnant leur valeur marchande. Cass., 17 mars

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1. (Règle « Nul ne plaide par procureur ». Navigation maritime. Navigation fluviale). L'exception à la règle « Nul en France ne plaide par procureur », admise en matière maritime, où les actions sont valablement intentées par ou contre le capitaine, doit-elle également être admise en matière de navigation fluviale? - V. la note sous Cass., 24 janvier 1910.

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1.239

Comp. Rep., vis Action en justice, n. 221 et s., Capitaine de navire, n. 39 et s.; Pand. Rép., v Capitaine de navire, n. 591 et s. 2. (Règle: « Nul ne plaide par procureur ». Préte-nom. Fraude [Absence de]. Notaire. Responsabilité). Alors même que, lors de l'introduction de la demande en réparation du préjudice à elle causé par un acte délictuel, la victime de cet acte ne serait plus que le prête-nom des tiers qui lui avaient remboursé le montant de sa créance, l'auteur de l'acte incriminé ne peut trouver dans cette situation une fin de non-recevoir à l'exercice des droits dont le demandeur est investi, les conventions qui peuvent exister entre les tiers et le demandeur n'étant pas opposables à l'auteur de l'acte incriminé, en l'absence de toute fraude et de tout préjudice. Cass., 27 juin 1911. 1.556 3. Spécialement, le notaire, actionné par une personne en remboursement d'une créance hypothécaire qui aurait été perdue par sa faute, n'est pas fondé à opposer au demandeur une fin de non-recevoir tirée de ce que, lors de l'introduction de l'instance, il aurait été remboursé de sa créance par des tiers (en l'espèce, un autre nolaire et la Comp. d'assurances qui avait assuré celui-ci contre les risques de sa profession), dont le demandeur ne serait, à l'instance, que le prête-nom. Ibid.

Comp. Rép., v° Action en justice, n. 146 et S., Suppl., eod. verb., n. 147 et s.; Pand. Rép., vo Action (en justice).

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ACTION POSSESSOIRE.

les affirmations de leurs supérieurs, lorsque ceux-ci auraient à leur conseiller des mesures de prévoyance réellement autorisées par la Comp. de chemins de fer, les conséquences ainsi visées par les juges comme devant découler du dommage actuel et certain éprouvé par la Comp. sont purement énonciatives, et leur caractère éventuel ne saurait modifier en rien la nature du préjudice résultant dès à présent pour la Comp. de la diminution de son autorité sur ses agents. Ibid.

3. En droit, d'ailleurs, il suffit que le fait duquel dépend le préjudice éventuel soit consommé pour que la réparation en puisse être poursuivie. Ibid.

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Comp. Rep., v° Action civile, n. 35 et s.. 44 et s., 151 et s.; Pand. Rép., v° Instruction criminelle, n. 184 et s.

5. (Règle « Le criminel tient le civil en état ». Sursis. Plainte. Conseil de prud'hommes). Un conseil de prud'hommes, saisi d'une demande en dommages-intérêts pour brusque congé, formée contre son patron par un employé qui a été renvoyé sans observation du délai de prévenance, refuse à bon droit de surseoir à statuer, raison d'une plainte en complicité de vol déposée par le patron contre l'employé, alors qu'aucune poursuite criminelle n'a été intentée contre celui-ci.. Cass., 29 juil

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1. (Escroquerie. Prairies. Souscription de polices d'assurance. Employés de chemins de fer. Comp. de chemins de fer. Préjudice moral). Lorsqu'un arrêt, pour admettre une Comp. de chemins de fer à se porter partie civile sur une poursuite pour escroquerie contre un individu, qui, en se présentant auprès d'employés de cette Comp. comme lui étant attaché en qualité d'inspecteur, leur a fait signer des polices d'assurance désavantageuses, constate que l'usurpation par le prévenu du titre d'inspecteur, et la circonstance qu'à l'aide de cette fausse qualité, il a fait signer les polices frustratoires, sont de nature à causer à la Comp. un grave préjudice moral, en compromettant son autorité et son influence vis-à-vis de ses agents, cet arrêt ne peut être critiqué commne ayant fait découler le préjudice qu'il relève exclusivement de la prise d'une fausse qualité, c'est-à-dire d'un seul des éléments constitutifs du délit; il résulte, au contraire, des constatations de l'arrêt que le préjudice éprouvé a eu sa source dans la souscription des polices d'assurance, souscription obtenue à l'aide de la fausse qualité. Cass., 28 juin 1912. 1.597

2. Si, après avoir déclaré l'existence du préjudice moral causé à la Comp. de chemins de fer par la signature des polices d'assurance, les juges ont ajouté que les agents signataires pourraient, à l'avenir, être tentés de mettre en doute

1.76

3. Spécialement, le propriétaire de prés riverains d'un ruisseau dont les eaux alimentent le bief d'un moulin n'est pas fondé, sur le motif que les prés auraient été inondés, faute par le meunier d'avoir curé le ruisseau, à agir en complainte pour obtenir la cessation du trouble qu'il aurait éprouvé dans sa possession, alors que le meunier défendeur n'a jamais élevé de prétention à la possession des prés. - Ibid. 4. A supposer qu'une responsabilité pesat sur le meunier, à raison de l'inondation des prés, il y aurait lieu, non à la complainte possessoire, mais, selon les cas, à une action basée, soit sur l'art. 1382, C. civ., soit sur les art. 6, 221 et 2, de la loi du 12 juill. 1905, ou 15, tit. 2, de la loi des 28 sept.-6 oct. 1791. Ibid. Comp. Rep., v° Action possessoire, n. 17 et s.; Pand. Rep., eod. verb., n. 621 et s. 5. (Cumul du pétitoire.—Titres. Appréciation. Pouvoir du juge). Le juge du possessoire a le droit de rechercher si les titres, invoqués pour colorer et caractériser la possession du demandeur, sont applicables à la cause et opposables au défendeur, auteur du trouble

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